There are many contesting arguments for what consciousness is and if/how it can be adopted by a robot (Kuhn, 2015). The traditional divide is between physicalism where consciousness is purely a physical construct and in that way can be perfectly replicated into a machine. The other is that consciousness exists in a non-physical entity, completely separate from the physical brain and that in death, our consciousness can continue in a non-physical experience.
It is not only the essence of consciousness that causes contention but the application of it in a robot. Philosopher John Searle has argued that even if consciousness is purely physical and thus a replication of the brain would replicate consciousness, a perfect simulation ‘would be no more conscious than a perfect simulation of a rainstorm would make us all wet’. Alternatively, Rodney Brooks argues that consciousness is not a special phenomenon reserved only for humans/animals and that we have fooled ourselves into thinking a conscious machine can not be created.
We have not yet addressed the ‘other minds problem’ which is that one cannot ever know if another person (or machine) is conscious. You can only truly know that you are conscious and you have no means on determining if another being is or isn’t. Neuroscientist Michael Graziano suggests that the assumption of consciousness is a social attribution and argues that ‘when a robot acts like it’s conscious and can talk about its own awareness, and when we interact with it, we will inevitably have that social perception, that gut feeling, that the robot is conscious.’
In light of this, I will be assuming that it is irrelevant to discuss wether or not advanced artificial intelligence actually possesses true consciousness. Instead I will focus on the perception of consciousness in a machine and how this will prompt deep emotional relationships between humans and advanced A.I.